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For that reason, the reputation of the JHI had been severely undermined by its publications of this period, which has been reproduced in historiography and even today compromises researchers like Ber Mark. Despite many shortcomings and biases, these works are an important contribution to early Holocaust historiography. Without using classic Stalinist propaganda their works could not have been published. This is also true for important sources on the Shoah, originating in the Ringelblum Archive and other sources.

Furthermore, if Mark and his colleagues had not adapted to the political situation, it would probably have placed the existence of the institute at risk. Without the JHI, however, its archives would have been uncertain and it is doubtful that they would have been made accessible to the public. The research for this article was supported by grant no.

Stephan Stach is a postdoctoral researcher and member of a research group at the Institute for Contemporary History of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague which is examining the reintegration of Jews into Czechoslovak and Polish society after the Second World War.


He is currently preparing a monograph on the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw and knowledge about the Shoah between and He co-edited Gegengeschichte. The 3rd Reich and the Jews] Paris, The archive collection of the JHI is currently being reorganized. The statement is not signed, however, there is little doubt that it was by Mark.

IV, no.


Quote from the English abstract at XIV. VII, nos. The text appeared in both the journal Bleter far geshikhte and the newspaper Folks-sztyme under the same title. In Folks-sztyme it appeared in four parts. Pospiechalski, letter to Eisenbach, 16 February , n. Ajzenstajn, Betti Ruch podziemny w ghettach i obozach. Materials and documents]. Dawidowicz, Lucy S. Varshe: Yidish bukh.

A political history]. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

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Gruner, Frank Patrioten und Kosmopoliten. Juden im Sowjetstaat — [Patriots and cosmopolites. Jews in the Soviet State —]. Jockusch, Laura Collect and Record. XXXVI, — Political aspects of anniversary celebrations of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising —]. Kupfer, F. A contribution to the problem: Zionism in the service of imperialism. Geneza i przebieg [The uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto against the background of the resistance movement in Poland. Origin and course]. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej. Documents from the Archive of the Bialystok Ghetto —], ed.

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Warsaw: Neriton. Studies and Materials.

Journal of the Polish Center for Holocaust Research, vol. Pankratova, A. Research and political Instrumentalization], in Umdeuten, verschweigen, erinnern. The late coming to terms with the past in Eastern Europe], ed. Karol Sauerland and Micha Brumlik. Frankfurt and New York: Campus Verlag, — The 3rd Reich and the Jews]. Rayski, Adam Zwischen Thora und Partei. Life stages of a Jewish communist]. Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder Verlag,— Roskies, David G.

Challenging the Myth of Silence, ed. David Cesarani and Eric J. Sundquist 82— London and New York: Routledge. Rubenstein, Joshua and Vladimir P. In the Shadow of the Past, and of the Soviet Union. Schwarz, Jan Survivors and Exiles. Yiddish Culture after the Holocaust.

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Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Stalin and historical science], Bleter far geshikhte, vol. Saved from the destruction. Stalin, Yosif V.

Warsaw: Trio. The article focuses on the importance of work in the supply of food into the ghettos of Lithuania. Files of the ghetto courts and police reports used in this paper shed light on the reality of ghetto life and illustrate how individuals dealt with the situation and tried to get additional food. It is obvious that micro-networks family, neighbourhoods and co-workers were an important means of support for the individual within the context of ghetto societies. Normality and everyday life therefore reflect the reality of a forced society whose social differentiation was primarily based on a single criterion: access to food.

The idea of a ghetto still connotes the idea of a zone hermetically sealed off from the outside world, where people are fully separated from their previous environment. It has been repeatedly pointed out in recent decades that a special form of everyday life and normality existed in this extreme situation Dieckmann and Quinkert , 9— The following may prove the potential of addressing such everyday issues and once again show that the history of the ghettos in Eastern Europe still has certain gaps that need filling. The genesis of this particular form of normality is closely tied to work of the Jewish population provided for its German masters.

This development also took place in the three major ghettos in Lithuania.


Wissenschaft – KUNST – Kommunikation

Deep insights into ghetto life can also be found in the diaries of Herman Kruk in relation to Vilnius Kruk and Avraham Tory with regard to Kaunas Tory In addition, early reports and accounts Fun letztn Churbn 7 and 8; Gar ; Balberyszki ; Dworzecki ; Shalit have particular significance and contributions in a two-volume memoir Sudarsky are also important.

They contain research on the ghettos in Lithuanian, Israeli and German e. The histories of the Jewish councils by Isaiah Trunk Trunk and the emergence of the ghettos by Dan Michman Michman remain the seminal works on this subject. Work also offered a way for those in forced labour to improve their own wretched living conditions.

Naturally everyone was interested in obtaining more food or goods for their families or themselves through official allocations in order to relieve their misery. Inevitably activities clashed with the regulations of the occupying forces; sometimes they involved fraudulent behaviour or sparked conflicts with Lithuanians or other ghetto residents.

Such incidents are evident in the criminal investigations of the ghetto police or in the files of internal ghetto courts that meticulously documented their inquiries and judgements in German, Lithuanian and Yiddish. These materials, which are now housed in the Lithuanian Central State Archive, shed light on the reality of ghetto life and illustrate how individuals sought to cope with the situation.

Here I present some of these files, supplemented with memoirs and documents, and place them in a broader context. Especially desirable were positions in work brigades that allowed you to leave the ghetto because you could then transact with locals. However, it did not always go as planned. Baruchas Kovenskis, a member of a work brigade in Kaunas, reserved 5 kilograms of butter with a Lithuanian woman and wanted to pay and take it the next day. When he appeared on 1 May she stated that his colleague, who she believed had come on his behalf, had already picked up the butter.

The Lithuanian woman believed the claim of the man because he personally knew Kovenskis and his statement that Kovenskis could not come because he had to work that day at Aleksotas airport was a commonplace occurrence in the assignment of brigades. Often, people from city brigades were indeed divided up at short notice for hard work at Aleksotas outside the city Tauber , — Having failed to force down the price, he left. However, he was only able to sell 2 kilograms in the ghetto and make a profit of RM 40, which he donated to a good cause.

The investigator recorded his findings and conclusions. Kovenskis had bought a total of 15 kilograms of butter in Kaunas, but only took 10 kilograms and wanted to pick-up the remaining 5 kilograms the following day despite bribable German, Lithuanian and Jewish ghetto guards, the smuggling of food into the ghetto was officially forbidden and entailed considerable risks, as discussed below. This assumption is also supported by the fact that it was very difficult to find food in the city in the week of the incident between Easter and 1 May. The fraudster also made a profit.